Wednesday, November 6, 2013

1-1,000,000 In Roman Numerals and in Latin

This week we will be learning  Roman Numerals and their Latin names, so that later this month we can learn how to write dates in Latin using Roman months, ordinal numbers, and dates. But first things first, how many of you can read the numbers on this clock?
Clocks depicting Roman numerals are very popular.
 
Well, there are five rules to remember when making numerical values with Roman Numeral:
SymbolValue
I1
V5
X10
L50
C100
D500
M1,000
1. A lesser numeral placed before another numeral represent subtraction.
  •  I placed before V and X make 4  (IV) and 9  (IX)
  • X placed before L and C make 40 (XL) and 90 (XC)
  • C  placed before D and M  make 400 (CD) and 900 (CM) according to the same pattern
2. Conversely, a lesser numeral placed after another numeral represent addition
  • I placed after  V and X make 6(VI) and 11(XI)
  • X placed after L and C make 60 (LX) and 110 (CX)
  • C placed after a D and M make 600 (DC) and 1,100 (MC)
3. No numeral will ever be used more than three consecutive times[ sometimes it is seen in older Latin texts, but this is rare]
  • 4(IV) and 40(XL) will NEVER be written IIII or XXXX
  • 400 (CD) will NEVER be CCCC
4. For number over 3,999 (MMMCMXCIX); an unique rule is used: ANY NUMBER WITH A BAR OVER IT, IS EQUIVALENT TO THAT NUMBER TIMES 1,000
  • 5(V) with a bar over  V means 5 times 1,000 which equals 5,000 ((V-bar))
  • 10 (X) with a bar over it will be 10,000 ((X-bar))
  • 100 (C) with a bar over it will be 100,000 ((C-bar))
  • 1,000 (M) with a bar over it will be a 1,000,000 ((M-bar))
NUMBERS 1-100
An earlier blog post already addressed ALL the numbers from 1-100; which can be seen here. But for review, let’s look at some basics:
NumberLatin numeralsPronunciation
0nihil
1Iūnus
2IIduo
3IIItrēs
4IVquattuor
5Vquīnque
6VIsex
7VIIseptem
8VIIIoctō
9IXnovem
10Xdecem
20XXvīgintī
30XXXtrīgintā
40XLquadrāgintā
50Lquīnquāgintā
60LXsexāgintā
70LXXseptuāgintā
80LXXXoctōgintā
90XCnōnāgintā
100Ccentum
Well, now that you know some numbers from 1-100; it should quite simple for the hundreds.
NUMBERS 100-1,000
NumberLatin numeralsCardinal Number
100Ccentum
200CCducenti, ducentae, ducenta
300CCCtrecenti, trecentae, trecenta
400CDquadrigenti, quadrigentae, quadrigenta
500Dquingenti, quingentae, quingenta
600DCsescenti, sescentae, sescenta
700DCCseptingenti, septingentae, septingenta
800DCCCoctingenti, octingentae, octingenta
900CMnongenti, nongentae, nongenta
1,000Mmille
For a closer look at the declensions (masculine, feminine, and neuter) of the tens, hundreds, and one thousand; please visit here and here.
NUMBERS 1,000- 1,000,000
*Remember the “Bar Rule:” As,  X = 10, BUT  (X-bar) =  10,000
NumberLatin numeralsCardinal Number
1,000Mmille
5,000(V-bar)quīnque milia
10,000(X-bar)decem milia
50,000(L-bar)quinquaginta milia
90,000(X-bar)(C-bar)nonaginta milia
100,000(C-bar)Centum milia
300,000(C-bar)(C-bar)(C-bar)tre centa millia
500,000(D-bar)quingenta milia
750,000(D-bar)(C-bar)(C-bar)(L-bar)septingentos-quinquaginta-milia
1,000,000(M-bar)Deciec centena milia
*Please note that the number would be consecutively touching and there would be no spaces in between. This is merely a formatting problem.
If you are still having problem with convert into Roman Numeral refer to here for additional help and support.
Hope this helps any beginners of Latin or Roman Numerals!

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